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Patipath

Patipath

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หมวดหมู่ : วิศวกรรม

คำสำคัญ: วิศวกรรมโยธา

วิศวกรรมโยธา


โมเดลการเสริมเหล็กในระบบกำแพงกันดิน

บทนำ

กำแพงกันดินเป็นโครงสร้างที่ออกแบบขึ้นเพื่อต้านทานแรงดันด้านข้องของดิน  โครงสร้างที่เป็นกำแพงกันดินที่พบได้บ่อยคือ กำแพงห้องใต้ดิน,กำแพงกันดินส่วนดินถม,กำแพงกันดินที่คอสะพาน เป็นต้น

กำแพงกันดินมีหลายชนิด ตามลักษณะของการใช้งาน เช่น
  1. Gravity Wall
  2. Semi-Gravity Wall
  3. Catilever Wall
  4. Counter Wall
  5. Buttressed Wall

มาตรฐาน ว.ส.ท ในส่วนที่เกี่ยวกับการให้รายละเอียดกำแพงกันดิน

  1. ขนาดเหล็กเส้นที่ใช้เสริมกำแพง จะต้องไม่เล็กกว่า 9 มม.
  2. เหล็กเสริมเอก จะต้องมีระยะเรียงไม่ห่าง 3 เท่า ของความหนาของผนังหรือไม่เกิน 30 ซม.
  3. ช่องว่างระหว่างเหล็กที่วางขนานกัน จะต้องไม่แคบกว่าขนาดเส้นผ่าศูนย์กลางของเหล็กเสริมนั้นๆ หรือ 1.3 เท่าของขนาดใหญ่สุดของมวลหยาบ หรือ 2.5 ซม.
  4. เนื้อที่เหล็กเสริมตามแนวราบของกำแพง จะต้องไม่น้อยกว่า 0.0025 ของเนื้อที่หน้าตัดของผนังส่วนนั้น และสำหรับเหล็กเสริมในแนวดิ่งไม่น้อยกว่า 0.0015 แต่ถ้าใช้ตะแกรงลวดเชื่อมแทน ให้ใช้ไม่น้อยกว่า 3/4 ของค่าดังกล่าวแล้ว และต้องมีขนาดไม่เล็กกว่าเบอร์ 10 ของ AS&W
  5. ความหนาของคอนกรีตหุ้มเหล็กเสริม ในส่วนที่เทหล่อคอนกรีตลงกับดินโดยตรง (ไม่มีคอนกรีตหยาบ หรือไม้แบบ) จะต้องมีความหนาห่อหุ้มระหว่างผิวคอนกรีตที่ติดดินไม่น้อยกว่า 6 ซม. สำหรับคอนกรีตส่วนที่เมื่อถอดแบบแล้ว จะถูกแดดฝน หรือสัมผัสกับดินและเหล็กเสริมนั้น มีขนาดเส้นผ่าศูนย์กลาง ตั้งแต่ 15 มม. ขึ้นไป ต้องมีความหนาห่อหุ้่มไม่น้อยกว่า 4 ซม. และถ้าใช้เหล็กเสริมขนาดเล็กกว่า 15 มม. ลงมา ต้องหุ้มไม่น้อยกว่า 3 ซม. และในทุกกรณี ความหนาห่อหุ้มจะต้องไม่บางกว่าขนาดเส้นผ่าศูนย์กลางของเหล็กนั้น

ตัวอย่างโมเดลการเสริมเหล็กในกำแพงกันดิน

 
Model Descriptions
1. RE-001 กำแพงกันดินแบบความสูงน้อย
2. RE-002 กำแพงกันดินแบบความสูงมาก
3. RE-003 กำแพงกันดินแบบความสูงมากมีครีบรับแรงดึง
   
 

หมวดหมู่: วิศวกรรม

คำสำคัญ: ระบบกำแพงกันดิน

เขียนเมื่อ: 2 ต.ค. 2551 เวลา 22:45 น.

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If you send a message on Twitter and no one is there to hear it, does it make noise? The fact is, there is no particular reason to tweet, if you do not have an audience a fundamental truth of all channels of social media. As you think about ways to engage constituents and promote your nonprofit and its mission through Facebook, Twitter and blogs, you should also think about how to promote each channel and build your audience . Whether you call them "friends," "followers," "subscribers" or "fans" all mean the same thing for the purposes of this article: you need an audience for any strategy for social media to serve the good news is that because of the "network effect", attracting some. fans can often increase your

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potential audience exponentially-the very nature of social media makes it easy for your friends to spread the word to their own networks of friends, and so on. should go without saying that if you want people to pay attention, post something you find useful and relevant. This applies to all communications, not only for social media. If you're starting a new blog or Twitter account, start by posting some interesting things, even if no one is "listening" yet-to show the audience that they hope to gain resources that can be of interest to them. How do you know what will interest the kind of people you want to follow? Ask them. Find a good representative sample

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of the desired audience and start a conversation with them through discussions, telephone interviews or an investigation as to what kind of places you want to read. no one is ever drawn in an empty restaurant, no matter how good the food. Social media is like, even with brilliant content, it is difficult to attract supporters in an area that no one else follows. Reach out to your staff and other key supporters of your organization and ask them to follow your tweets, or "like" your Facebook page and invite personal friends. getting them to post comments or to respond to your posts can help show an active community. a small, critical m *  of fans will

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make it easier to attract others to your channel. Once you have some basic positions and a reliable-looking at the number of fans, it's time to open our doors to the public. An easy way to start doing this is to add social profile information as your media anywhere your contact information is given. A Facebook or Twitter logo on your website can link people directly to your pages, and if you have a blog, make sure that people can easily find it through your website. The email signature lines often overlooked as useful places to distribute information. Put title, phone number and email address there-why not include a link to your Facebook and Twitter profile?

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part of getting people to be part of the social community is simply to let people know you have one. people who already know they are more likely to join social communities within you by strangers, and can reach people who already support your organization through email, newsletters and other print channels social media. is common practice to start a new channel of communication by telling your audience why you are likely to find useful or interesting. for example, if you "re launching a page on Facebook, include an advertisement in your newsletters describing all the great things that you will only find on Facebook. might also consider a continuous, repeated communication to spread the word

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on social media your world-for example, a "best of" e-mail that rounds up recent posts blog, or a "source of the Week" highlighting particularly good discussion on Facebook or resource posted on Twitter. Make clear where the information was originally, and let people know how to follow or "like" on social media. Useful content will encourage people to read your posts and spread the word, but using specific words can help you reach a specific audience. on twitter, a "hashtag"-pound symbol followed by a word-flags a tweet to make it easy for others to follow. Why do so many people working in nonprofit technology follow hashtag # nptech, for example, noting relevant tweet this will help

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you achieve that particular group. Similarly, you can "tag" someone in a Facebook post using the @ symbol followed by the name of the profile. for example, the position "I just watched an interesting training available from @ Idealware" will appear on the Facebook page-known as "wall" you as you as the Idealware. This can be a great way to attract the attention of major players in your field. in reply to other people's sites is also a good way to attract attention from a certain crowd. for example, in response to a question on someone's blog or Twitter with a useful source could force people to follow your link, and finally. Social media makes it

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easy for other people to post to your account, and take advantage of this benefit is a great way to spread the word. Ask key supporters, such board or core volunteers, invite their friends or followers to follow you or post for you. you know people with significant public social media. These people are called "influence", and can have a disproportionately large impact-a mention of them can send a huge number of people your way. for example, you may have a board member who seems to know everyone, or organizational friend who is known in your community. worthwhile to build online relationships with people who have a wide following in the area you are interested in,

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and encourage them to p *  the word. Want to build a sizable audience in a single, quick touch? Create a specific incentive for people to join the community, offer your people join your Facebook page a discount on something, for example, or a free book about the 20 people who post the most useful comment to your blog. Contests and games is another way to draw people. Can accommodate a scavenger hunt and tweet the information, or a contest on Facebook which requires people to "like" your page. remember, however, that the sheer size of the audience is not an accurate measure of your influence. Make sure to reach an audience that might actually be interested

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in what you have to say, no matter how many followers you have if none of them pay attention to you or it does nothing to help your cause Finally, worth keeping a simple fact in mind:. social media is meant to be social. The participating honestly in the online discussion on issues of interest to your organization, you will build an audience more successfully than any other tip or trick. Look for other blogs on related topics, read them and start conversations with bloggers. Follow interesting organizations on Twitter, and "like" them on Facebook. Post comments that add to the discussion, and to tweet and retweet the resources other people offer. by becoming a regular,

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reliable part of the discussion, you put yourself top-of-mind for other people who are looking for interesting resources to follow or to distribute to their own community. PHPKB knowledge base software makes publishing, sharing and collaboration in knowledge easy. We are sure you will find everything you would expect from this knowledge management software. Our knowledge base software includes all the features and tools you need to build an intuitive and useful knowledge base. PHPKB offers enterprise cl *  features and pricing that can fit a small business budget.

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an integrated management information base has never been easier. Using a wide variety of features, some of which are highlighted below, will keep costs low while maintaining productivity over. web-based knowledge base system is undoubtedly useful for internal and external customers. With the use of public and private categories, PHPKB knowledge base software allows you to setup a public (external) and a private (internal) knowledge base and that too with a single copy of the software. While the external knowledge base serves your customers and public users, internal knowledge base is a great tool for technical customer service (internal staff) too! Perhaps even more so, since your customer service staff (especially users) to have access not only to visible public issues, but private too. you never know if the internal knowledge base is much larger than your public knowledge. sometimes, customers will not find the answer in the knowledge base. Perhaps the need is very unique and the answer is

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not quite there yet. in some cases, customers will not read your self-help articles, and we'll send you simply by asking them. in any case, customers can also submit their questions via the "Ask Question" form of this software. If you go through the online form, you will be presented with a list of items that can help. queries are submitted both by email and an automatic ticket. with so many communication options are available, call volume will be reduced dramatically. PHPKB Knowledge Base Software allows your customers to easily submit support tickets. your staff (users admin) can effectively manage customer tickets through the admin control panel. Just found a solution for facts support staff (editors

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and superusers) can optionally publish your ticket for your knowledge as an article to help others in the future. characteristic of 'Direct Question Suggestions ?will search your knowledgebase articles for proposed solutions as your customers composing new support tickets. This helps customers to find a solution if there is within your knowledge without having to contact support. This prevents duplicate questions and helps reduce inbound support. Your end users can submit their questions in the form of a ticket from the page "Ask a question" of PHPKB knowledge base software. Users admin (editors and superusers) have the opportunity to see the questions (open tickets), respond with an answer to the end user and publish the question-answer

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as a new article in the knowledge base, so that future users do not need resubmit the same question. Increase the Value Relation ClientsKeeping the trust of your customers is one of the biggest challenges in sales. This can be especially difficult if the product or service that is offered elsewhere in the market for the same quality or price. long ago, when a customer liked or trusted him as a person, it would be enough to earn their business, but in a more competitive and educated today's market, this is often insufficient. Now, customers need not only, like and trust you, you should also see you as an expert in their industry, and this is

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just to make the first sale. to protect your customer loyalty, you must develop relationships in organizations widely and deeply to ensure that you maintain your reputation, even if the primary contact leaves your client's company. In sales, the personal relationship is perhaps one of the most famous and traditional customer sales techniques. Before a client is moving forward to do business with you, he or she must like and trust you as the face of your business. This means balancing your personal relationship with the customer transactional relationship. When calling on a client, it is always to rearrange, upgrade, or some other conversation that requires the customer writes a check? If so, you're heavy on

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the trading relationship and constantly asking for money, which is going to wear to the customer eventually. Instead of focusing on the first sale, make the customer feel like you care about them. I'm not talking about the conversations for your children, although this small talk is a great way to personalize the relationship. What is more important, however, is to make the customer feel like they care about your success. by cultivating a personal relationship with your customer, you can add intangible value to products and services. your personal relationship with the customer is the first layer in the development of confidence, but today's customer is much more savvy than his client 3-5 years. should

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not only make them like you, but to see them as a resource that will help them move their businesses forward and achieve their goals. We call this company building rapport. Establish yourself as a resource for your customers. Enter to potential customers or employees when you see a fit. Put them in a customer advisory panel, in consultation with their contribution, which will give them an inherent sense of ownership and investment in your company and product. Ensure that your company and you as a person involved in thought leadership, conferences, professional development and other activities reputation building. Many studies have shown that about two-thirds of customers who leave do so because they feel their

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supplier has become indifferent to their needs. Make sure your customers do not fall under that misconception by promoting a relationship out of the sale do not underestimate the power of having not only a good relationship with the main point of contact in an organization, but also with excellent rapport with others people within the client. the amount of turnover that most companies have, it is wrong to  * ume that a large and loyal contact within the organization will necessarily lend itself to a secure relationship with the same client. at Engage Selling, we recently a customer with a multimillion-dollar shipping services contract. the customer was great for our client, but problems cropped with main

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contact, the vice president of operations, left the company. When the new vice president came in, did a complete review of services, including shipping, and because the client did not develop multiple relationships within the organization, there has been an advocate for specific services mission. nobody stood up and said the new VP that shipping our customer services was necessary to do their job; no strains are considered integral to the company as a result, they were seen as "just a salesman," eventually losing the $ 1,000,000 contract to a competitor is great to have a quality relationship with .. every one of your customers, but do not underestimate the value of the quantity of people

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กฎและกติกาการแสดงความคิดเห็น

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  2. หากทีมงานเว็บไซต์ ตรวจพบ หรือ มีผู้แจ้ง ทางเว็บไซต์ขอสงวนสิทธิ์ในการลบออก โดยไม่ต้องแจ้งให้ผู้แสดงความคิดเห็น
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